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    Manufacturer: Witherby

    LNG Operational Practice, 2nd Edition

    £195.00
    This second edition is updated for 2020 to reflect the substantial changes and new designs in the technical and operational aspects of LNG shipping and the transportation of LNG by sea, since this book was first published in 2006. It is prepared as a practical handbook for the operation of LNG carriers.
    ISBN: 9781856098717
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    Published January 2020

    ISBN 9781856098717

     

    This book is written for LNG Officers who require a better understanding of the processes involved in operating a modern LNG carrier. The book is laid out with clear diagrams, checklists, guidance and instructions for each of the operations undertaken at each stage of a typical trading cycle for an LNG carrier including: Post dry-dock, Drying of cargo tanks, inerting of cargo tanks, gassing-up the cargo tanks, initial cooldown of cargo tanks, cargo loading, laden voyage, cargo discharge, ballast voyage, ship to ship transfer and preparations for dry-dock including warming-up of cargo tanks, inerting of cargo tanks and aeration of cargo tanks.

     

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Section 1: General Information

    1 Physical Properties, Composition and Characteristics of LNG

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 Flammability of LNG

    1.3 Saturated Vapour Pressure (SVP)

    1.4 Vapour Density

    1.5 Safety Precautions in LNG Handling

    2 Normal Trading Cycle of an LNGC

    3 Cargo Containment Systems

    3.1 Overview

    3.2 Moss Rosenberg (Moss)

    3.2.1 Leak detection

    3.3 Mark III (GTT)

    3.3.1 Membrane or primary barrier

    3.3.2 Insulation and secondary barrier

    3.3.3
    Interbarrier and insulation space (IBS/IS) N2 pressurisation and control system

    3.4 NO96 (GTT)

    3.4.1
    Primary insulation space (PIS) and secondary insulation space (SIS) N2 pressurisation and
    control system

    4 Cargo Handling Equipment

    4.1 Cargo Pump

    4.2 Spray/Stripping Pump

    4.3 High Duty Compressor

    4.4 Low Duty Compressor

    4.5 Gas Heater

    4.6 Vaporiser

    4.7 Reliquefaction Plant

    4.8 Gas Combustion Unit (GCU)

    5 Auxiliary Equipment

    5.1 The Cargo Valves Remote Control System

    5.2 Ship/Shore Link and ESD System

    5.3 N2 Generator

    5.4 IG Plant

    5.5 Custody Transfer and Measurement System (CTMS)

    5.6 Cargo Tank Gauging System

    5.6.1 Cargo tank float gauge

    5.7 Gas Detection Equipment

    5.8 Cofferdam Heating System

    5.9 Vacuum Pumps

    5.10 Tank Overflow Protection

    Section 2: Post Dry-dock Operations

    6 Operations Related to Auxiliary Systems

    6.1 Moss Type LNG Carriers

    6.1.1 Overview

    6.1.2 Removing ambient humid air from the hold spaces

    6.1.3 Drying and inerting of tank insulation and annular space

    6.2 Membrane Type LNG Carriers (Mark III and NO96)

    6.2.1 Overview

    6.2.2
    Removing ambient humid air from the insulation spaces of Mark III cargo containment system

    6.2.3
    Removing ambient humid air from the insulation spaces of NO96 cargo containment system

    7 Cargo Tank Operations

    7.1 Drying of Cargo Tanks

    7.1.1 Overview

    7.1.2 Preparation for drying

    7.1.3 Operational description – cargo tanks drying

    7.1.4 Further considerations

    7.2 Inerting of Cargo Tanks

    7.2.1 Overview

    7.2.2 Preparation for inerting

    7.2.3 Operational description – inerting cargo tanks prior to gassing-up

    7.2.4 Further considerations

    7.3 Gassing-up the Cargo Tanks

    7.3.1 Overview

    7.3.2 Preparation for gassing-up

    7.3.3
    Operational description – gassing-up the cargo tanks with LNG vapour and IG vented to
    atmosphere

    7.3.4 Operational description – gassing-up the cargo tanks with LNG vapour and IG returned to shore

    7.3.5 Further considerations

    7.4 Initial Cooldown of Cargo Tanks

    7.4.1 Moss type LNGC

    7.4.2 Membrane type LNGC

    7.4.3 Operational description – cargo tanks cooldown

    7.4.4 Further considerations

    Section 3: In-service Operations

    8 Loading Operations

    8.1 Overview

    8.2 Preparation for Loading

    8.3 Pre-loading Operations

    8.4 Cooldown for Loading

    8.5 Ramp-up to Bulk Rate

    8.6 Bulk Rate Loading

    8.7 Ramp-down

    8.8 Post-loading Operations

    8.9 Departure from Load Port

    9 Laden Voyage

    9.1 Overview

    9.2
    Laden Voyage of LNG Carriers with Gas Burning Propulsion System

    9.2.1 Steam plant

    9.2.2 Engines and generators

    9.2.3 Consideration for all gas burning systems

    9.3
    Laden Voyage of LNG Carriers with Reliquefication Plant

    9.4 Further Considerations on Laden Voyage

    10 Discharge Operations

    10.1 Overview

    10.2 Preparation for Discharge

    10.3 Pre-discharge Operations

    10.3.1 Operational description – MLAs and liquid header cooldown prior to discharging

    10.4 Ramp-up to Bulk Rate

    10.4.1 4-step ramp-up

    10.4.2 8-step ramp-up

    10.5 Operational description – bulk rate discharge

    10.6 Ramp-down

    10.6.1 Ramp-down ‘heel retained’

    10.6.2 Operational description – ramp-down ‘heel out’ (cargo tank stripping)

    10.7 Post-discharge Operations

    10.8 Departure from Discharge Port

    10.9 Further Considerations During Discharge

    11 Ballast Voyage

    11.1 Overview

    11.2 Heel Management

    11.2.1
    Heel management of LNGCs with a gas burning propulsion system

    11.2.2
    Heel management of LNGCs with a reliquefaction plant

    11.3 Further Considerations on Ballast Voyage

    12 Ship to Ship Transfer Operations

    12.1 Pre-arrival Stage

    12.2 Approach and Mooring Stage

    12.3 Cargo Transfer Stage

    12.4 Post-transfer Procedure

    Section 4: Pre Dry-dock Preparations

    13 Cargo Tank Operations

    13.1 Warming up Cargo Tanks

    13.1.1 Overview

    13.1.2 Preparation for warming up

    13.1.3 Operational description – cargo tanks warming up

    13.1.4 Further considerations

    13.2 Inerting of Cargo Tanks

    13.2.1 Overview

    13.2.2 Preparation for inerting

    13.2.3 Operational description – cargo tank inerting after warming up

    13.2.4 Further considerations

    13.3 Aeration of Cargo Tanks

    13.3.1 Overview

    13.3.2 Preparation for aeration

    13.3.3 Operational description – cargo tank aeration

    13.3.4 Further considerations

    Glossary

     

     

    *
    *
    *
    *

    Published January 2020

    ISBN 9781856098717

     

    This book is written for LNG Officers who require a better understanding of the processes involved in operating a modern LNG carrier. The book is laid out with clear diagrams, checklists, guidance and instructions for each of the operations undertaken at each stage of a typical trading cycle for an LNG carrier including: Post dry-dock, Drying of cargo tanks, inerting of cargo tanks, gassing-up the cargo tanks, initial cooldown of cargo tanks, cargo loading, laden voyage, cargo discharge, ballast voyage, ship to ship transfer and preparations for dry-dock including warming-up of cargo tanks, inerting of cargo tanks and aeration of cargo tanks.

     

    Preface

    Acknowledgements

    Section 1: General Information

    1 Physical Properties, Composition and Characteristics of LNG

    1.1 Overview

    1.2 Flammability of LNG

    1.3 Saturated Vapour Pressure (SVP)

    1.4 Vapour Density

    1.5 Safety Precautions in LNG Handling

    2 Normal Trading Cycle of an LNGC

    3 Cargo Containment Systems

    3.1 Overview

    3.2 Moss Rosenberg (Moss)

    3.2.1 Leak detection

    3.3 Mark III (GTT)

    3.3.1 Membrane or primary barrier

    3.3.2 Insulation and secondary barrier

    3.3.3
    Interbarrier and insulation space (IBS/IS) N2 pressurisation and control system

    3.4 NO96 (GTT)

    3.4.1
    Primary insulation space (PIS) and secondary insulation space (SIS) N2 pressurisation and
    control system

    4 Cargo Handling Equipment

    4.1 Cargo Pump

    4.2 Spray/Stripping Pump

    4.3 High Duty Compressor

    4.4 Low Duty Compressor

    4.5 Gas Heater

    4.6 Vaporiser

    4.7 Reliquefaction Plant

    4.8 Gas Combustion Unit (GCU)

    5 Auxiliary Equipment

    5.1 The Cargo Valves Remote Control System

    5.2 Ship/Shore Link and ESD System

    5.3 N2 Generator

    5.4 IG Plant

    5.5 Custody Transfer and Measurement System (CTMS)

    5.6 Cargo Tank Gauging System

    5.6.1 Cargo tank float gauge

    5.7 Gas Detection Equipment

    5.8 Cofferdam Heating System

    5.9 Vacuum Pumps

    5.10 Tank Overflow Protection

    Section 2: Post Dry-dock Operations

    6 Operations Related to Auxiliary Systems

    6.1 Moss Type LNG Carriers

    6.1.1 Overview

    6.1.2 Removing ambient humid air from the hold spaces

    6.1.3 Drying and inerting of tank insulation and annular space

    6.2 Membrane Type LNG Carriers (Mark III and NO96)

    6.2.1 Overview

    6.2.2
    Removing ambient humid air from the insulation spaces of Mark III cargo containment system

    6.2.3
    Removing ambient humid air from the insulation spaces of NO96 cargo containment system

    7 Cargo Tank Operations

    7.1 Drying of Cargo Tanks

    7.1.1 Overview

    7.1.2 Preparation for drying

    7.1.3 Operational description – cargo tanks drying

    7.1.4 Further considerations

    7.2 Inerting of Cargo Tanks

    7.2.1 Overview

    7.2.2 Preparation for inerting

    7.2.3 Operational description – inerting cargo tanks prior to gassing-up

    7.2.4 Further considerations

    7.3 Gassing-up the Cargo Tanks

    7.3.1 Overview

    7.3.2 Preparation for gassing-up

    7.3.3
    Operational description – gassing-up the cargo tanks with LNG vapour and IG vented to
    atmosphere

    7.3.4 Operational description – gassing-up the cargo tanks with LNG vapour and IG returned to shore

    7.3.5 Further considerations

    7.4 Initial Cooldown of Cargo Tanks

    7.4.1 Moss type LNGC

    7.4.2 Membrane type LNGC

    7.4.3 Operational description – cargo tanks cooldown

    7.4.4 Further considerations

    Section 3: In-service Operations

    8 Loading Operations

    8.1 Overview

    8.2 Preparation for Loading

    8.3 Pre-loading Operations

    8.4 Cooldown for Loading

    8.5 Ramp-up to Bulk Rate

    8.6 Bulk Rate Loading

    8.7 Ramp-down

    8.8 Post-loading Operations

    8.9 Departure from Load Port

    9 Laden Voyage

    9.1 Overview

    9.2
    Laden Voyage of LNG Carriers with Gas Burning Propulsion System

    9.2.1 Steam plant

    9.2.2 Engines and generators

    9.2.3 Consideration for all gas burning systems

    9.3
    Laden Voyage of LNG Carriers with Reliquefication Plant

    9.4 Further Considerations on Laden Voyage

    10 Discharge Operations

    10.1 Overview

    10.2 Preparation for Discharge

    10.3 Pre-discharge Operations

    10.3.1 Operational description – MLAs and liquid header cooldown prior to discharging

    10.4 Ramp-up to Bulk Rate

    10.4.1 4-step ramp-up

    10.4.2 8-step ramp-up

    10.5 Operational description – bulk rate discharge

    10.6 Ramp-down

    10.6.1 Ramp-down ‘heel retained’

    10.6.2 Operational description – ramp-down ‘heel out’ (cargo tank stripping)

    10.7 Post-discharge Operations

    10.8 Departure from Discharge Port

    10.9 Further Considerations During Discharge

    11 Ballast Voyage

    11.1 Overview

    11.2 Heel Management

    11.2.1
    Heel management of LNGCs with a gas burning propulsion system

    11.2.2
    Heel management of LNGCs with a reliquefaction plant

    11.3 Further Considerations on Ballast Voyage

    12 Ship to Ship Transfer Operations

    12.1 Pre-arrival Stage

    12.2 Approach and Mooring Stage

    12.3 Cargo Transfer Stage

    12.4 Post-transfer Procedure

    Section 4: Pre Dry-dock Preparations

    13 Cargo Tank Operations

    13.1 Warming up Cargo Tanks

    13.1.1 Overview

    13.1.2 Preparation for warming up

    13.1.3 Operational description – cargo tanks warming up

    13.1.4 Further considerations

    13.2 Inerting of Cargo Tanks

    13.2.1 Overview

    13.2.2 Preparation for inerting

    13.2.3 Operational description – cargo tank inerting after warming up

    13.2.4 Further considerations

    13.3 Aeration of Cargo Tanks

    13.3.1 Overview

    13.3.2 Preparation for aeration

    13.3.3 Operational description – cargo tank aeration

    13.3.4 Further considerations

    Glossary

     

     

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