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    Manufacturer: Witherby

    Inspection Maintenance Repair of Ship Structures

    £95.00
    This book is aimed at people involved in the repair, maintenance and classification of ocean-going merchant ships. It takes a rigorous and structured approach to the subject, using discussion of changing regulation to describe and analyse a set of underpinning principles and techniques.
    ISBN: 9781905331376
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    Published February 2009 

    ISBN 9781905331376

     

    This book is for personnel involved in the repair, maintenance and classification of ocean-going merchant ships, including shipyard project managers, marine superintendents and Classification Society surveyors. It will also interest younger engineers embarking on a career in ship surveying, and students of naval architecture and related disciplines with an interest in ship operations.

     

    INTRODUCTION iii AUTHOR'S PREFACE
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    CHAPTER 1 Corrosion of Metal Structures
    1.1 A Brief Description of Corrosion Mechanisms
    1.2 Types of Corrosion

    1.2.1 Uniform or general corrosion
    1.2.2 Pitting corrosion
    1.2.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
    1.2.4 Cavitation erosion - impingement attack
    1.2.5 Bacterial corrosion
    1.3 Factors that Influence Corrosion
    1.3.1 Corrosion and the environment
    1.3.2 Corrosion mechanisms in marine structures
    1.4 Shipbuilding Materials and their Properties
    1.4.1 Steel
    1.4.2 Aluminium
    1.4.3 Copper
    1.4.4 Brass
    1.4.5 Copper alloys without zinc
    1.4.6 Stainless steels
    1.5 Design Against Corrosion
    1.6 The Effects of Corrosion on Ships at a Global Scale
    References
    CHAPTER 2 Fatigue; A Hidden Enemy of Ship Structures
    2.2 Fatigue in the Marine Environment
    2.3 Factors that Contribute to Fatigue
    2.3.1 Loads
    2.3.2 Environmental factors
    2.3.3 Factors related to materials and fabrication
    2.4 The Mathematical Analysis of Fatigue
    2.4.1 Classical approach using S-N curves
    2.4.2 Fracture mechanics approach to crack initiation
    2.4.3 Advantages and disadvantages of fatigue analysis methods
    2.5 Fatigue in Ship Structures 2
    References
    CHAPTER 3
    Buckling of Ship Structure
    3.1 Loads Acting
    on Ship Structures
    3.1.1 Classification of loads
    3.1.2 Design loads for primary bending strength
    3.1.3 Local buckling effects
    3.2 The Behaviour of Metals
    3.3 The Response of Structural Components Subjected to Compressive Loading
    3.3.1 Columns and beam-columns
    3.3.2 Flat and stiffened panels
    3.4 Two Cases of Hull Girder Failure
    3.4.1 Collapse and sinking of a small tanker following longitudinal failure
    3.4.2 The loss of a bulk carrier due to overall transverse collapse of the hull girder
    References
    CHAPTER 4
    Fractures in Ship Structures
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Mechanisms of Crack Growth in Metals
    4.2.1 Slip, plastic deformations and dislocations
    4.2.2 Ductile transgranular fractures by microvoid coalescence
    4.2.3 Transgranular brittle fracture (cleavage)
    4.2.4 Transgranular fatigue cracks
    4.2.5 Intergranular fracture
    4.2.6 Sustained load fractures
    4.2.7 Fatigue cracks
    4.3 Fractures in Ship Structures: General Aspects
    4.3.1 Brittle fractures
    4.3.2 Ductile fractures and other failures in general cargo vessels
    4.3.3 Measures for the avoidance of fatigue cracks
    4.3.4 The repair of fractures
    References
    CHAPTER 5
    Damage to the Hull Structure of Bulk Carriers
    5.1 Introduction and Overview
    5.1.1 Statistical information
    5.1.2 Regions of the structure that are prone to frequent damage
    5.2 Causes of Damage to Bulk Carriers
    5.2.1 The influence of corrosion
    5.2.2 Cracks in bulk carrier structures. Some general observations
    5.2.3 Other causes of damage. Observations regarding corrosion and fatigue
    5.3 Damage in Various Parts of the Structure
    5.3.1 Strength deck
    5.3.2 Damage to cargo holds
    5.3.3 Local design of stiffeners at snip ends. Fatigue strength
    References
    CHAPTER 6
    Damage to the Hull Structure of Oil Tankers
    6.1 General
    6.2 Corrosion in Oil Tanker Structures
    6.2.1 Water ballast tanks
    6.2.2 Cargo/clean ballast tanks
    6.2.3 Cargo/dirty ballast tanks
    6.2.4 Cargo tanks 95
    6.3 Integrity of the Structure
    Wear and Corrosion
    6.3.1 General
    6.3.2 Tank bottom structures
    6.3.3 Side shell, longitudinal and transverse bulkheads
    6.3.4 Strength deck
    6.3.5 Corrosion in various parts of tanker structures
    6.3.6 Examples
    6.4 Fractures and Related Failures in Tanker Structures
    6.4.1 Fatigue fractures
    6.4.2 Brittle fractures in tankers
    6.5 Buckling Collapse in Tanker Structures
    6.5.1 Buckling of the strength deck of a 100,000 dwt ton tanker
    6.5.2 Hull girder collapse of the VLCC Energy Concentration
    References
    CHAPTER 7
    Surveys and Inspections of the Hull Structure
    7.1 Introduction
    Purpose and Types of Hull Structure Surveys
    7.2 Owner's Surveys
    7.2.1 Surveys conducted on behalf of insurers
    7.2.2 On-hire surveys
    7.2.3 Off-hire surveys
    7.2.4 Sale and purchase survey and general condition survey
    7.2.5 Damage surveys
    7.2.6 Hull structure life extension schemes
    7.3 Statutory Surveys
    7.3.1 Annual Hull and Machinery Surveys
    7.3.2 Intermediate Surveys
    7.3.3 Dry-docking Surveys
    7.3.4 Hull Special Surveys
    7.3.5 Special Surveys of machinery equipment
    7.3.6 Boiler Surveys
    7.3.7 Tail-shaft Surveys
    7.4 Assessment of Survey Data
    7.4.1 Assessment method
    7.4.2 Integrity of the structure
    7.4.3 Acceptance criteria
    7.5 The Effect of Corrosion - Inspection, Evaluation and Prediction
    7.5.1 General
    7.5.2 Background to corrosion surveys on board ships
    7.5.3 Corrosion data requirements
    7.5.4 Corrosion rate prediction and survey techniques
    7.5.5 Thickness measurement using ultrasound techniques
    7.6 The Practical Investigation of Fractures in Ship Structures
    7.6.1 Preparations for a fracture inspection
    7.6.2 The fracture inspection
    7.6.3 Circumstances at the time of fracture
    7.6.4 Causes of large (brittle) fractures
    7.7 Local Buckling in Structural Members
    7.8 Effectiveness of Hull Structure Inspections
    7.8.1 Scope of the problem
    7.8.2 The Probability of Detection (POD) as a measure of inspection effectiveness
    7.8.3 Factors affecting inspector performance
    7.8.4 A realistic scenario
    References
    CHAPTER 8 Surveys and Maintenance of Bulk Carrier Structures
    8.1 Introduction.
    The Requirements of International
    Organisations for Bulk Carrier Surveys
    8.2 Survey Requirements for Bulk Carrier Structures
    8.3 Technical Background of Surveys
    8.3.1 General
    8.3.2 Nomenclature
    8.3.3 Structural damages and deterioration
    8.4 Preparation and Execution of Surveys
    8.4.1 The survey programme
    8.4.2 Principles for planning document
    8.4.3 Conditions for survey
    8.4.4 Access arrangement and safety
    8.4.5 Equipment and tools
    8.4.6 Survey at sea or at anchorage
    8.4.7 Documentation onboard
    8.5 Prevention of Accidents by Owners and Crew
    8.5.1 Company practice
    8.5.2 Practice onboard vessel
    8.5.3 Maintenance of hull structure by crew
    8.5.4 Ship operations in port (loading/discharging)
    8.5.5 Ship operations (at sea)
    8.5.6 Detection of damage
    References
    CHAPTER 9 Surveys of the Hull Structure of Oil Tankers
    9.1 Introduction.
    Class and Statutory Requirements
    9.2 Vessel Geometry and Nomenclature

    9.2.1 Conventional (single skin) oil tankers
    9.2.2 Double skin tankers
    9.3 Technical Background for Surveys
    9.3.1 Structural defects

    9.3.2 Critical areas in double hull tankers
    9.4 Safety and Access
    9.4.1 Safety during surveys
    9.4.2 Access to the structure
    9.4.3 Access methods for the structure of double skin tankers
    9.5 Forms and Procedures for Collection and Reporting
    9.5.1 Examples of the IACS Unified Requirements
    9.5.2 Planning Booklet for the IACS Enhanced Special Survey
    9.5.3 General Condition Survey
    9.5.4 Detailed Condition Survey
    References
    CHAPTER 10 Maintenance Planning. The Use of Protective Coating sand Cathodic Protection
    10.1 Basic Concepts of Maintenance Planning
    10.1.1 Background
    10.1.2 Maintenance of ship structures
    10.1.3 Repairs
    10.2 Protection of the Hull Structure Using Coatings and Surface Preparation
    10.2.1 Preparation methods for metal surfaces
    10.2.2 Surface roughness and steel surface preparation
    10.2.3 Preparation of aluminium surfaces
    10.3 Anticorrosive Coatings
    10.3.1 Protection requirements for the various parts of hull structures 21310.3.2 Primers for steel structures
    10.4 Antifouling Paints
    10.4.1 Action of antifouling paints
    10.4.2 Basic types of antifouling paints
    10.4.3 Recent legislation concerning the use of organic-metallic antifouling paints
    10.5 Classification of Coatings on the Basis of the Binder Used
    10.5.1 Paints that have dry oils as a base
    10.5.2 Bituminous paints
    10.5.3 Alkyd resin paints
    10.5.4 Chlorinated rubber (CR) paints
    10.5.5 Vinyl paints
    10.5.6 Epoxy paints
    10.5.7 Coal tar epoxy paints
    10.5.8 Polyurethane paints
    10.5.9 Polyurethane tar paints
    10.5.10 Unsaturated polyester resin coatings
    10.5.11 Zinc silicate paints
    10.5.12 Silicon resin paints
    10.6 Coating Application Techniques
    10.6.1 Use of brush and roller
    10.6.2 Spraying
    10.6.3 Conditions of application of protective coatings
    10.7 Film Thickness
    10.7.1 Measurement of film thickness
    10.7.2 Distribution of membrane thickness
    10.7.3 Wet and dry film thickness
    10.7.4 Mean film thickness and paint consumption
    10.8 Identification of Critical Regions of Hull Structures Due to Corrosion
    10.8.1 Anticorrosive coatings in water ballast tanks
    10.8.2 Condition of existing ships using corrosion as a criterion
    10.8.3 The condition of protective coatings onboard existing ships
    10.9 Types of Damage to Protective Coatings
    10.9.1 Environmental factors
    10.9.2 Damage related to material properties and coating application
    10.9.3 Damage due to poor workmanship
    10.10 Prediction of the Condition of a Protective Coating Within Water Ballast Tanks
    10.11 Coating of a Medium Sized Bulk Carrier During Dry-Docking
    10.12 Cathodic Protection of the Hull Structure
    10.12.1 The effect of the properties of seawater
    10.12.2 Aeration and oxygen content
    10.12.3 Effect of variations in temperature and oxygen content
    10.12.4 Effect of material and protective coating properties
    10.13 Cathodic Protection Below the Waterline
    10.13.1 Calculation of the required protection current density
    10.13.2 Hull protection using galvanic anodes
    10.13.3 Protection using impressed current systems
    10.14 Cathodic Protection of Other Regions of the Hull Structure
    10.14.1 Interior surfaces of tanks
    10.14.2 Bilges
    10.14.3 Floating docks
    CHAPTER 11 Condition Evaluation and Repair Planning Using a Database Approach
    11.1 Data Acquisition
    11.1.1 Planning of corrosion surveys and hull structure inspections
    11.1.2 Preparations for safety and access during inspections
    11.1.3 Instrumentation
    11.2 General Requirements of a Ship Structure Database
    11.2.1 Data entry
    11.2.2 Data types and codes for their classification
    11.2.3 Documentation of corrosion parameters
    11.3 Repair Planning Using Engineering Economy Calculations
    11.3.1 Time value of money. Methods of evaluation and project assessment
    11.4 Examples of Use of the Hullcon Database
    11.4.1 Condition assessment and evaluation of bulk carrier structures
    11.4.2 Repair/maintenance strategic planning for an oil tanker
    11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations

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    Published February 2009 

    ISBN 9781905331376

     

    This book is for personnel involved in the repair, maintenance and classification of ocean-going merchant ships, including shipyard project managers, marine superintendents and Classification Society surveyors. It will also interest younger engineers embarking on a career in ship surveying, and students of naval architecture and related disciplines with an interest in ship operations.

     

    INTRODUCTION iii AUTHOR'S PREFACE
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    CHAPTER 1 Corrosion of Metal Structures
    1.1 A Brief Description of Corrosion Mechanisms
    1.2 Types of Corrosion

    1.2.1 Uniform or general corrosion
    1.2.2 Pitting corrosion
    1.2.3 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
    1.2.4 Cavitation erosion - impingement attack
    1.2.5 Bacterial corrosion
    1.3 Factors that Influence Corrosion
    1.3.1 Corrosion and the environment
    1.3.2 Corrosion mechanisms in marine structures
    1.4 Shipbuilding Materials and their Properties
    1.4.1 Steel
    1.4.2 Aluminium
    1.4.3 Copper
    1.4.4 Brass
    1.4.5 Copper alloys without zinc
    1.4.6 Stainless steels
    1.5 Design Against Corrosion
    1.6 The Effects of Corrosion on Ships at a Global Scale
    References
    CHAPTER 2 Fatigue; A Hidden Enemy of Ship Structures
    2.2 Fatigue in the Marine Environment
    2.3 Factors that Contribute to Fatigue
    2.3.1 Loads
    2.3.2 Environmental factors
    2.3.3 Factors related to materials and fabrication
    2.4 The Mathematical Analysis of Fatigue
    2.4.1 Classical approach using S-N curves
    2.4.2 Fracture mechanics approach to crack initiation
    2.4.3 Advantages and disadvantages of fatigue analysis methods
    2.5 Fatigue in Ship Structures 2
    References
    CHAPTER 3
    Buckling of Ship Structure
    3.1 Loads Acting
    on Ship Structures
    3.1.1 Classification of loads
    3.1.2 Design loads for primary bending strength
    3.1.3 Local buckling effects
    3.2 The Behaviour of Metals
    3.3 The Response of Structural Components Subjected to Compressive Loading
    3.3.1 Columns and beam-columns
    3.3.2 Flat and stiffened panels
    3.4 Two Cases of Hull Girder Failure
    3.4.1 Collapse and sinking of a small tanker following longitudinal failure
    3.4.2 The loss of a bulk carrier due to overall transverse collapse of the hull girder
    References
    CHAPTER 4
    Fractures in Ship Structures
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Mechanisms of Crack Growth in Metals
    4.2.1 Slip, plastic deformations and dislocations
    4.2.2 Ductile transgranular fractures by microvoid coalescence
    4.2.3 Transgranular brittle fracture (cleavage)
    4.2.4 Transgranular fatigue cracks
    4.2.5 Intergranular fracture
    4.2.6 Sustained load fractures
    4.2.7 Fatigue cracks
    4.3 Fractures in Ship Structures: General Aspects
    4.3.1 Brittle fractures
    4.3.2 Ductile fractures and other failures in general cargo vessels
    4.3.3 Measures for the avoidance of fatigue cracks
    4.3.4 The repair of fractures
    References
    CHAPTER 5
    Damage to the Hull Structure of Bulk Carriers
    5.1 Introduction and Overview
    5.1.1 Statistical information
    5.1.2 Regions of the structure that are prone to frequent damage
    5.2 Causes of Damage to Bulk Carriers
    5.2.1 The influence of corrosion
    5.2.2 Cracks in bulk carrier structures. Some general observations
    5.2.3 Other causes of damage. Observations regarding corrosion and fatigue
    5.3 Damage in Various Parts of the Structure
    5.3.1 Strength deck
    5.3.2 Damage to cargo holds
    5.3.3 Local design of stiffeners at snip ends. Fatigue strength
    References
    CHAPTER 6
    Damage to the Hull Structure of Oil Tankers
    6.1 General
    6.2 Corrosion in Oil Tanker Structures
    6.2.1 Water ballast tanks
    6.2.2 Cargo/clean ballast tanks
    6.2.3 Cargo/dirty ballast tanks
    6.2.4 Cargo tanks 95
    6.3 Integrity of the Structure
    Wear and Corrosion
    6.3.1 General
    6.3.2 Tank bottom structures
    6.3.3 Side shell, longitudinal and transverse bulkheads
    6.3.4 Strength deck
    6.3.5 Corrosion in various parts of tanker structures
    6.3.6 Examples
    6.4 Fractures and Related Failures in Tanker Structures
    6.4.1 Fatigue fractures
    6.4.2 Brittle fractures in tankers
    6.5 Buckling Collapse in Tanker Structures
    6.5.1 Buckling of the strength deck of a 100,000 dwt ton tanker
    6.5.2 Hull girder collapse of the VLCC Energy Concentration
    References
    CHAPTER 7
    Surveys and Inspections of the Hull Structure
    7.1 Introduction
    Purpose and Types of Hull Structure Surveys
    7.2 Owner's Surveys
    7.2.1 Surveys conducted on behalf of insurers
    7.2.2 On-hire surveys
    7.2.3 Off-hire surveys
    7.2.4 Sale and purchase survey and general condition survey
    7.2.5 Damage surveys
    7.2.6 Hull structure life extension schemes
    7.3 Statutory Surveys
    7.3.1 Annual Hull and Machinery Surveys
    7.3.2 Intermediate Surveys
    7.3.3 Dry-docking Surveys
    7.3.4 Hull Special Surveys
    7.3.5 Special Surveys of machinery equipment
    7.3.6 Boiler Surveys
    7.3.7 Tail-shaft Surveys
    7.4 Assessment of Survey Data
    7.4.1 Assessment method
    7.4.2 Integrity of the structure
    7.4.3 Acceptance criteria
    7.5 The Effect of Corrosion - Inspection, Evaluation and Prediction
    7.5.1 General
    7.5.2 Background to corrosion surveys on board ships
    7.5.3 Corrosion data requirements
    7.5.4 Corrosion rate prediction and survey techniques
    7.5.5 Thickness measurement using ultrasound techniques
    7.6 The Practical Investigation of Fractures in Ship Structures
    7.6.1 Preparations for a fracture inspection
    7.6.2 The fracture inspection
    7.6.3 Circumstances at the time of fracture
    7.6.4 Causes of large (brittle) fractures
    7.7 Local Buckling in Structural Members
    7.8 Effectiveness of Hull Structure Inspections
    7.8.1 Scope of the problem
    7.8.2 The Probability of Detection (POD) as a measure of inspection effectiveness
    7.8.3 Factors affecting inspector performance
    7.8.4 A realistic scenario
    References
    CHAPTER 8 Surveys and Maintenance of Bulk Carrier Structures
    8.1 Introduction.
    The Requirements of International
    Organisations for Bulk Carrier Surveys
    8.2 Survey Requirements for Bulk Carrier Structures
    8.3 Technical Background of Surveys
    8.3.1 General
    8.3.2 Nomenclature
    8.3.3 Structural damages and deterioration
    8.4 Preparation and Execution of Surveys
    8.4.1 The survey programme
    8.4.2 Principles for planning document
    8.4.3 Conditions for survey
    8.4.4 Access arrangement and safety
    8.4.5 Equipment and tools
    8.4.6 Survey at sea or at anchorage
    8.4.7 Documentation onboard
    8.5 Prevention of Accidents by Owners and Crew
    8.5.1 Company practice
    8.5.2 Practice onboard vessel
    8.5.3 Maintenance of hull structure by crew
    8.5.4 Ship operations in port (loading/discharging)
    8.5.5 Ship operations (at sea)
    8.5.6 Detection of damage
    References
    CHAPTER 9 Surveys of the Hull Structure of Oil Tankers
    9.1 Introduction.
    Class and Statutory Requirements
    9.2 Vessel Geometry and Nomenclature

    9.2.1 Conventional (single skin) oil tankers
    9.2.2 Double skin tankers
    9.3 Technical Background for Surveys
    9.3.1 Structural defects

    9.3.2 Critical areas in double hull tankers
    9.4 Safety and Access
    9.4.1 Safety during surveys
    9.4.2 Access to the structure
    9.4.3 Access methods for the structure of double skin tankers
    9.5 Forms and Procedures for Collection and Reporting
    9.5.1 Examples of the IACS Unified Requirements
    9.5.2 Planning Booklet for the IACS Enhanced Special Survey
    9.5.3 General Condition Survey
    9.5.4 Detailed Condition Survey
    References
    CHAPTER 10 Maintenance Planning. The Use of Protective Coating sand Cathodic Protection
    10.1 Basic Concepts of Maintenance Planning
    10.1.1 Background
    10.1.2 Maintenance of ship structures
    10.1.3 Repairs
    10.2 Protection of the Hull Structure Using Coatings and Surface Preparation
    10.2.1 Preparation methods for metal surfaces
    10.2.2 Surface roughness and steel surface preparation
    10.2.3 Preparation of aluminium surfaces
    10.3 Anticorrosive Coatings
    10.3.1 Protection requirements for the various parts of hull structures 21310.3.2 Primers for steel structures
    10.4 Antifouling Paints
    10.4.1 Action of antifouling paints
    10.4.2 Basic types of antifouling paints
    10.4.3 Recent legislation concerning the use of organic-metallic antifouling paints
    10.5 Classification of Coatings on the Basis of the Binder Used
    10.5.1 Paints that have dry oils as a base
    10.5.2 Bituminous paints
    10.5.3 Alkyd resin paints
    10.5.4 Chlorinated rubber (CR) paints
    10.5.5 Vinyl paints
    10.5.6 Epoxy paints
    10.5.7 Coal tar epoxy paints
    10.5.8 Polyurethane paints
    10.5.9 Polyurethane tar paints
    10.5.10 Unsaturated polyester resin coatings
    10.5.11 Zinc silicate paints
    10.5.12 Silicon resin paints
    10.6 Coating Application Techniques
    10.6.1 Use of brush and roller
    10.6.2 Spraying
    10.6.3 Conditions of application of protective coatings
    10.7 Film Thickness
    10.7.1 Measurement of film thickness
    10.7.2 Distribution of membrane thickness
    10.7.3 Wet and dry film thickness
    10.7.4 Mean film thickness and paint consumption
    10.8 Identification of Critical Regions of Hull Structures Due to Corrosion
    10.8.1 Anticorrosive coatings in water ballast tanks
    10.8.2 Condition of existing ships using corrosion as a criterion
    10.8.3 The condition of protective coatings onboard existing ships
    10.9 Types of Damage to Protective Coatings
    10.9.1 Environmental factors
    10.9.2 Damage related to material properties and coating application
    10.9.3 Damage due to poor workmanship
    10.10 Prediction of the Condition of a Protective Coating Within Water Ballast Tanks
    10.11 Coating of a Medium Sized Bulk Carrier During Dry-Docking
    10.12 Cathodic Protection of the Hull Structure
    10.12.1 The effect of the properties of seawater
    10.12.2 Aeration and oxygen content
    10.12.3 Effect of variations in temperature and oxygen content
    10.12.4 Effect of material and protective coating properties
    10.13 Cathodic Protection Below the Waterline
    10.13.1 Calculation of the required protection current density
    10.13.2 Hull protection using galvanic anodes
    10.13.3 Protection using impressed current systems
    10.14 Cathodic Protection of Other Regions of the Hull Structure
    10.14.1 Interior surfaces of tanks
    10.14.2 Bilges
    10.14.3 Floating docks
    CHAPTER 11 Condition Evaluation and Repair Planning Using a Database Approach
    11.1 Data Acquisition
    11.1.1 Planning of corrosion surveys and hull structure inspections
    11.1.2 Preparations for safety and access during inspections
    11.1.3 Instrumentation
    11.2 General Requirements of a Ship Structure Database
    11.2.1 Data entry
    11.2.2 Data types and codes for their classification
    11.2.3 Documentation of corrosion parameters
    11.3 Repair Planning Using Engineering Economy Calculations
    11.3.1 Time value of money. Methods of evaluation and project assessment
    11.4 Examples of Use of the Hullcon Database
    11.4.1 Condition assessment and evaluation of bulk carrier structures
    11.4.2 Repair/maintenance strategic planning for an oil tanker
    11.5 Conclusions and Recommendations