The ILO MLC is a truly ground-breaking instrument. The shipping industry is unique in being the only industrial sector to have such a comprehensive global regime in place, setting out mandatory standards for the employment of the world’s two million merchant seafarers, which are now strictly enforced by governments worldwide through a sophisticated system of flag state inspections and port state control.
Port and terminal managers have had to adapt fast to meet rising demand driven by the rapid expansion in world trade during the 21st century. Globalisation has put port models under growing pressure in increasingly competitive cargo markets. Better productivity - through expansion or more efficient use of existing assets - is crucial for economic survival.